Costume Complex (Clothes And Its Attire): Development, Relationships, Forms and Technologies in Time and Expanse

Posted on April 5, 2017


It’s Wednesday, conference video day, and we have the last of the sessions we videoed at the 2016 EAA conference for you:

Session Details

Friday, 2 September 2016, 09:00-16:00
Faculty of Philosophy, Room 207
Author – PhD Zhilina, Institute of archaeology RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Steponaviciene, Daiva, Director, Public Institution “Vita Antiqua”, Vilnius, Lithuania
Co-author(s) – PhD docent Stepanova, Julija, Tver State University, Tver, Russian Federation

Quite often there is an isolated study of typology of any category of jewelry, parts of headdress, garments in archeology. This situation ignores the fact that in real life and in history technology, forms, and historical context are linked in a common development process. As a result, a costume is formed, which combines the products of different materials. To catch all the details and the specific relationship of this natural and rational process a deep multidisciplinary analysis using different techniques and experiment is required. How the components of the costume complex are interconnected and how they are associated with the environment? The search for answers to these questions is the main objective of this session.

The proposed section welcomes reports upon the identification of relationships: between material, technology and forms of the jewelry items; between the material, technology of weaving, cutting system and forms of garments; between the forms of clothes and types of sets of adornments; between the suit and the natural environment, suit and social order. Presentations considering accessories of both female and male costumes, which include a set of weapons, tools and household items, will be interesting.
The subject of the study may be manifestation of regularities of the assimilation of external influences: «their own and others» in the costume; traditions and innovations; the speed of these processes in time and their orientation in expanse (center – province). The results are important on the study of a funeral and in intravital costume, of everyday and ceremonial or formal one. Any period studied archaeologically may be represented. It is also important to attract visual and written sources, ethnographic materials.
The output is preferred beyond just one category of material, one particular theme or method toward identifying links in the overall development of the complex costume.

The Eneolithic adornments as components of the costume. The case of Sultana-Malu Rosu cemetery
Author – student Sandu, Roxana, National History Museum of Romania, Bucharest, Romania (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Margarit, Monica, Valahia University of Targoviste, Targoviste, Romania
Co-author(s) – Lazar, Catalin, National History Museum of Romania, Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: Beads, Cemetery, Eneolithic

The Eneolithic adornments from the Sultana-Malu Rosu cemetery represent a particular case of archaeological artefacts, mainly because of their reduced dimensions, but also from the typological perspective, in this cemetery being present almost all types of beads known for this period in the Balkans. Two communities that were belonging to the Boian and the Gumelnita cultures (ca. 5000-3800 cal B.C.) used this cemetery. In these circumstances, the beads encountered some changes in form, dimension and raw material preference for their crafting, but other aspects remained the same in their evolution. Furthermore, the anatomical deposition of the beads on the skeletal remains is a significant source of information in the identification process of the beads as components of the costume or if they were only jewellery pieces.
The aim of this paper is to explore the beads discovered in the Sultana-Malu Rou cemetery, from the contextual, technological, functional, and symbolical point of view, but also to interpret the ways in which they were worn, combined and deposited in the graves. Our approach will cover use-wear analysis to identify the meaning of this beads, and to determine the social, economic, gender, and religious connotations of this kind of artefacts.
This work was performed through the Partnerships in Priority Areas Program – PN II, developed with the support of MEN –
UEFISCDI, project no. PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-2302.

Purses-amulets from territory of Tuva in I mill. BC as a phenomenon of cultural symbolization Author – Busova, Varvara, Institute for the History of Material Culture, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: archaeological leather, early iron age, scythians
In Tuva (Russia) there are leather purses different degree of preservation and a completely different content, what belong to the Scythian period (IV-III centuries BC). In some cases, it is the musk deer canines, whetstones, needle, in other case – wood composite comb in leather purse (from the tomb Holash k.83 (Mongun-Taiga, The republic of Tuva, Russia) that has been completely sewn along the edge of the product. This burial mound was excaveted by Tuva Archaeological Expedition of the Institute for the History of Material Culture Institute (Russian Academy of Science) in 1995. During the restoration internship at the State Scientific-Research Institute of Restoration (Moscow), it was possible to revert to it in 2014. Thanks to the prerestoration study, hitherto unnoticed fact noted (ocher coloring) and described structure of leather product.
Of course, together with the dead in the Barrow put the amulet as a comb for the hair brings a deep symbolic load associated forces of nature, its protection properties. But what was to sew the edges of the leather articles? Modern Altai to suit women belt, append sewn leather purse on a path with the umbilical cord first child in the family.

Sewed jewelry in Old Russian costume Author – Prof. Stepanova, Iuliia, Tver State University, Тверь, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: burial, hoard, costume, dress, jewelry, cut, ornament

The report is devoted to sewed jewelry of an Old Russian costume, they typological characteristics, location and appointment in a dress.
Sewed metal jewelry is characteristic both for the noble and for a demotic costume. In a noble costume the plaques of various forms sewed to clothes were widely used. Sometimes the whole sets of plaques of several types formed the ornamental friezes, which were settling down in cervical and breast zone. Similar sets are a part of hoards and come from a number of city and rural burials (for example, the hoard from Torzhok, burials in the Tver Kremlin, in St. Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod, in Desiatinnaia church of Kiev, burial grounds Lipinsky (the Kursk region), Novinki II (the Vologda region, ets.). The archaeological studied standup collar, decorated by sets of plaques, are most numerous.
Sets of plaques, apparently, were ripped off and reused. In a dress of rural people the sewed jewelry of various forms was used. First of all, it was suspension brackets of various forms: chains, bells, tiny suspension brackets, the trapezoid, drilled stones, seeds, and also knives. All things were suspended on rings, which were sewn to clothes. The location of attached jewelry has certain regularities. First of all, it is a breast zone, and also shoulders, belt, in some cases – a skirt zones. Chains as a rule settle down on one shoulder, asymmetric. Most likely, their ritual value as to such chains suspension brackets amulets and daggers fasten. Among other sewed jewelry the bells draw attention. There is a series of burials, in which the bells settle down in a certain order. They can be considered as markers of structure or a cut of clothes. The following options of a location of bells are allocated: on rings on shoulders, symmetric; to the line across a breast; in the zone of a belt; in some horizontal lines in the zone of a skirt. Probably, the linearly located bells ornamented edges or connections of separate parts of clothes.
Symmetric jewelry on the shoulders testifies the shoulder clothes, perhaps, like a Russian traditional sarafan. Ways of fastening of the sewed jewelry can to be various: by woolen threads on rings; by thin leather laces. It is obvious that the set of metal sewed jewelry made heavier clothes. Besides, there was a need repeatedly to alter jewelry. Materials of hoards and burials, undoubtedly, show a festive clothes, and funeral, which could correspond a lifetime festive costume. The sets of festive clothes were stored together with the sewed jewelry that excludes need to unpick repeatedly jewelry from clothes. Such details as collars, could be ripped off from clothes entirely and keep together with the sewed plaques. Such practice remained later. Lists of a dowry and the bequeathed things quite often include the removable and cut-off details. In the XV-XVII centuries, metal details give way to pearls, golden-sewn stripes and lace and metal plaques, which were also of great value and were transferred from one cloth to another.

One costume – complex meanings. Women’s funerary dress in 12th-century North Estonia. Author – PhD Rammo, Riina, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Ratas, J., Freelancer, Tallinn, Estonia

Late Iron Age inhumation cemeteries dated to the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century in Estonia reveal traces of richly decorated funeral dresses of mature women. Although textiles have preserved in the graves very rarely, sets of copper alloy jewellery and tiny metal elements used to decorate clothing items give plenty of information about the attire of the dead. Collected information allows constructing the appearance of the whole costume that seems to be common to the North and North-Eastern Estonia of that time. Various details of the costume can be related with stressing and protecting the fertility of a woman’s body, for example, the colours of textiles or the habit to adorn certain parts of the body with jewellery (breasts, waist and stomach).
On the basis of ethnographical sources describing how clothing expresses the social status of a woman, and the tradition to bury females in their wedding dress, we suggest that the above mentioned archaeological finds could also reveal the main characteristics of female costumes that were used to wear in the weddings or during the fertile age.

Annular brooch in the context of the late mediaeval costume and worldview

Author – Dr. Belaj, Juraj, Institute of Archaeology, Zagreb, Croatia (Presenting author)
Keywords: annular brooch, clothing function, symbolic function

This paper focuses on a 13th-century silver annular brooch discovered in the archaeological excavations in a grave buried adjacent to the foundation wall of the Templar church in Gora, Central Croatia. The brooch bears a partly deciphered inscription meant to protect the woman who wore it.
Apart from their function as a type of jewellery, annular brooches served another specific function in the context of the costume – they were used to fasten the two ends of a shirt collar together below the neck, or to fasten a cloak. As regards the function of any given specimen, our guess depends primarily on its size, which has been further corroborated by an experiment recently carried out in Croatia.
In that sense, the annular brooch from Gora will be placed in the context of the costume complex. We shall also contextualize it within the process of changes in the fashion that brought about this type of outfit in the first place, which spread from Byzantium in the 12th century to countries in Western Europe, and subsequently also throughout Europe, reaching also the Near East with the Crusaders. Annular brooches remained in use until the 15th century, reaching the heyday of popularity in the 13th and 14th centuries.
By virtue of its features and position in the context of the costume of the time, annular brooch soon became one of the dominant carriers of symbolic messages. This comes most to the fore in the case of the specimens bearing an inscription, like the one from Gora. Based on historical and illustrative sources as well as archaeological sites, the paper will show the correlation between the types of material used for making the brooches, types of decoration, production techniques and inscriptions on them on the one hand, and the quality of costume items they fastened, that is, in the last consequence, the social position of their wearers.

The variety of female textile funerary equipment from nineteenth century (Biala Rawska – Poland) Author – MA Majorek, Magdalena, Nicolaus Coperncius University Torun Poland, Torun, Poland (Presenting author)
Keywords: female garments, funerary equipment, textile in 19th century

Female textile funerary equipment can take very different forms and functions. They include both woven and knitted fabrics, dresses with intricate cuts as well as simple shirts, coffins upholstery or clothing accessories (ribbons or shoes). Two burials of women discovered during archaeological excavations in the crypt of the church in Biała Rawska were compared and characterized (coffin No. 9 and No. 12) Discussed women were buried in wooden coffins. The state of preservation of textiles led to the analysis functions and technological features. Funerary garment of the first woman (coffin No. 9) was the silk, long apron dressed on linen shirt, which cuffs was decorated with ribbons. Apron was made of 26 pieces (simple textile with plain weave 1/1) having different sizes and shapes (rectangles, triangles). At the lower edge of the apron was silk frill 90 mm wide. Apron was sewn by hand. To do sutures were used silk threads. Repeated use of that garment confirm the tight seams connecting the individual elements. Costume was completed with long, silk, knitted gloves and shoes with textile uppers. Upper shoes were made of patterned fabrics and decorated with ribbons. Second woman’s garment consisted of a silk dress with a complicated cut and numerous haberdashery. The dress consisted of a bodice with long sleeves and sewn into it, heavily a gathered at waist long skirt. The dress was sewn a dense, carefully stitch. Bodice consisted of 12 elements, two at the front (front left and right), the two at the arms (constituting mirror images of each) the eight at the left and right rear portion (also constituting its mirror image).The skirt consists of 7 elements: two located on the left front, two on the right front, and a single central rear portion considerably elongated. Left side is a mirror image of the right side. Fabric used to sew a dress has an area approximately 5 square meters. The head of the dead woman was laid on a pillow with a silk pillowcase. Pillowcase was made from a single piece of fabric (front and rear portion are of the same shape), but in the course of many years, the bottom portion has been destroyed, so archaeologists recorded two separate components. Pillow shape is similar to a quadrilateral with rounded corners. The maximum height is 470 mm, the maximum width is 510 mm. Around the edges (either the front or rear portion) is silk ribbon. The band is now a dark brown color. In addition, between the edges with the ribbons was sewn decorative frill.
The aim of the presentation is the identification of similarities and differences in the 19th century funeral textile equipment of two women, forms of clothing, typefaces, type of additives and manufacturing technology used fabrics.

Attire of the adornments: the main historical stages: natural, heavy-metal, jewelry, the accessory

Author – PhD Zhilina, Natalia, Institute of archaeology RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: adornments, attire, stages

Allocated steps of attire are clearly divided according to essential characteristics, but chronological boundaries are not sharp. The constant function of attire is presentation: to pick out or magnify a man and indicate his status. Constructive, aesthetic and sacred functions play different roles on different stages. Natural attire originated during primitive era, its elements were preserved in ethnographic suit. Adornments were made of available natural (plant and animal) materials, but artificial materials (ceramics, glass, textiles) were beginning to be used. Adornments mainly decorate the body, their forms correspond to its parts: head wreath, necklace, belt, bracelet. The joining between adornments made by wrapping, tying, stringing, piercing. Variegated colors were used, images of the natural world were reflected. Sacred and aesthetic functions were in unity. Heavy-metal attire has existed since the era of metal (Eneolith, Bronze Age) and during early Middle Ages. Heavy and numerous adornments of non-precious metal produced by forging and casting, fastened and kept draped clothes on the body uniting with it into a single structure. The attire of Finno-Ugric peoples fully represents this stage. Some things played the role of hard case (spiral and holder) or of supporting framework (head hoops), others cover cloth with metal layer (sewn and hanging plates, interwoven spirals). Attire stayed on pre-stylistic level, adornments from different regions are similar. With the increasing of complexity of
techniques first styles appeared (polychrome and carved styles, styles of champlevé enamel and of cloisonné incrustation). Constructive function and sacred protection were important. Metal details the best way perform the function of protective noise with jingling. III. Jewelry attire is typical for class society, for developed Middle Ages. Jewelry is made of precious materials in difficult jewelry techniques (cloisonne enamel, niello, filigree). Byzantine and Russian medieval attires are the examples. Jewelry items are linked together structurally and stylistically, their connection with clothing is typological. Silver bellshaped pendants and back head net complemented Russian compound headdress (“kichka”). Gold diadem in cloisonne enamel complemented band headdress. Constructive connection of jewelry and clothes became not very important, though sometimes was preserved. On the basis of fine and peculiar jewelry techniques original art styles and ornamental elements formed. Art images were able to reflect the symbols of concrete religions. Sacred and aesthetic functions are equally important. The accessory attire is characteristic to the New time and modernity. Adornments are made from the variety of materials and in every possible techniques, exist as other costume accessories, and even become not required. Items are linked stylistically and with color harmony. They complement the suit, can be replaced and changed, they are rather independent from the structure, style and typology of the suit. Jewelry correspond to the fashion and artistic trends of time, in most cases they do not have any semantics, except parting in sign suit related to specific events and subcultures. The main function is aesthetic. The attire is becoming more individual and formed by concrete person. The report is accompanied by examples of the hat and costume jewelery.

Jewelry: decoration or a detail of construction? Theory and practice

Author – PhD Steponavičienė, Daiva, PI Vita Antiqua, Vilnius, Lithuania (Presenting author)
Keywords: construction, costume, jewelry

Archaeologists, having found ancient jewelry in the burial monuments, most often regard it as a decoration element, classify and typologise it according to the shapes and ornamentation. Mostly only the metallic decoration details remain from all the attire set or, generally speaking, costume. It is not an easy task to recreate the costume itself with no preserved organic material – textile and leather, though the task is made easier by knowing the jewelry’s position relative to the skeleton. In this way, the position of the brooches makes it possible to guess what kind of clothing was pinned with it – lapels of the blouse, sides of the coat, corners of the cloak; pins with pendants and chains tell us the style of the women dresses; the shape of the bracelets let us understand the cut and the length of the sleeves; some types of neck rings let us assume about their function of fastening the cloaks; decoration details found in the area of the head give an image about the shaping of haircut or one or another variant of the headdress; even the rings, their decorations, the contents of the bead necklace may indicate the ownership of a certain person. It is noted that among thousands of archaeological findings, despite their stylistic uniformity, specific to one or another chronological period, there are no two identical items: all differ in both size and ornamentation, thus, being a possession of a certain person, they may have been recognized by others and used to prove an absent person’s delivered messages’ validity. Sometimes the dead are buried wrapped in the sheet, which was also fastened with brooches or pins; also sometimes additional jewelry (several neck rings, headbands, rings) was placed into the grave and not always in the anatomical order, but beside the head, on the legs. This aggravates the research of the costume’s construction. Textile researchers determined that the fabric for the clothes until the Medieval times were woven with plain colors, not striped, not checkered; the patterns were made using the yarns of one color for the warp and another color for the weft, the edges of the clothes were reinforced with woven multicolored bands. In this plain-colored costume the brass and silver jewelry would especially splendidly expose. Themselves being the works of art, they had another, much more important function – the formation of the costume, the connection and fastening of its details. The report is intended to emphasize the functionality of the jewelry, having practically checked the theoretical assumptions by reconstructing the wear of the different periods and tribes.

Costume of deads or costume of livings?

Author – Dr. Ciuperc , Bogdan Iosif, History and Archaeology Prahova County Museum, Ploieşti, Romania
Co-author(s) – Dr. Magureanu, A., Institute of Archaeology Vasile Parvan, Bucharest, Romania (Presenting author)
Keywords: early middle age, from object to costume, social meanings

There is a long debate of interpreting the archaeological discoveries from cemeteries, especially, as a suggesting (sometime as a certitude) of the costume of certain community/group/ethnic. Discoveries from settlement where never taking into consideration as a reliable source for such debate. But there are epoches when we do not have cemeteries, at least known one’s, and there are epoches when we do not have settlements, archaeologist preferring to excavate the cemeteries. Such a situation is in Lower Danube region in the 6th-10th centuries. So this is a good situation to a wider kind of questions relating the costume. Costume of a person? Of a group? Of an elite? Of the other, non-elite? Of the dead? Of the living? Of the image of the buried person? Of the image of his family? How can we interpret the very same object discovered both in a settlement and in a cemetery from those questions point of view? It is an expression of the dead ascribed to the living space, the so called “closing objects”? or can be ambivalent? We intend to provoke some answers and more debates based on the discoveries from the mentioned area and not only, dated in the time frame of second half of the 1st Millennium A.D., a region and epoch of dramatically changes in the hole Europe.


Jewellery on mosaics from Roman Africa. Functions, aims and reliability of representations Author – MA Mech, Anna, University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland (Presenting author)
Keywords: jewellery, Roman Africa, Roman mosaic

At the beginning of 2nd century AD a special form of art appeared in Roman Africa – figural mosaics. They depicted both mythological scenes and everyday life and were displayed in public places and private estates of influential landlords. Among these works of arts, those with representations of landlords, their wives and workers draw particular attention. The hierarchy of African provincial population between the end of 2nd and the beginning of 6th century AD is clearly visible on these mosaics.
Moreover, they are very important documents of everyday life of different social groups in Roman Africa. The aim of this paper is to analyze the representation of jewellery on mosaics from Roman Africa. Through comparing them to artefacts found in the area of Roman Empire, it is possible to observe traditions in Roman jewellery and changes happening over the years, as well as discover local trends and their relation to Empire-wide patterns. The richness of landlords and their wives is emphasized by clothes and jewellery which they wear, alluding to Imperial and even divine prototypes, so it is possible to notice a clear relationship between forms of dress and the position within social order. Sometimes those traditions reached way farther back in time than the existence of the Roman Empire, for example the representations of chests for jewellery (pyxides) which are known status-symbols already on Classical Greek grave-steles.

Transformation of Zupan from military to elite element of the men’s costume among gentry Author – PhD Barvenava, Hanna, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus (Presenting author)
Keywords: complex, costume, Zupan

Zupan – one of the oldest components of the costume wearing by the elite of the Belarusian society. From the XI and the beginning of the sixteenth century Zupan was a component of the military costume, was functional, warm, made of woolen fabrics and quilted. Over three hundred years from the end of the XVI and to XVIII century Zupan became an essential element of the Belarusian gentry culture. During the Renaissance Zupan has evolved from military clothing to the main component of ceremonial Belarusian dress. Zupan began to sew from precious silk, velvet tissues, using a trim and gilded buttons. Such a rich clothes acquired status significance. During this period suit with the Zupan has become a unique distinctive artistic phenomenon, the hallmark of nobleman, manifestation of their political life.
This report will propose six major reasons for the emergence elite men’s suit with the Zupan in the sixteenth century. Among them it will be noted that rich, celebratory men’s suit was born with changes in the worldview of the gentry class in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the desire to emphasize its own peculiarities among European Community. There will also be observed evolution of the complex costume, which included Zupan. The differences between celebratory and everyday Zupan, changes of details (collar, sleeves, etc.) from the end of XVI and XVIII centuries will be presented. It will be noted that the basic principles of cutting and style of wearing Zupan remained almost unchanged for three centuries. Red, white and gray colors of Zupan were most widespread during the lifetime of the gentry’s suit.
Wearing a costume with the Zupan in Belarus during the partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was a symbol of nobility, patriotism, symbol of freedom. Zupan has evolved into a costume component wearable by participants of revolt for independence. After the destruction of the nobility as society class, Zupan has transformed into a retinue – Belarusian component of the traditional male costume. Today Zupan becomes a component of the Belarusian intelligentsia costume during family (weddings), and corporate events.

Small adults – forms of children clothes until 2nd half of 18th c. Author – Grupa, Dawid, Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Coperncius University Torun Poland, Toruń, Poland (Presenting author)
Keywords: child clothes, copy, reconstruction

In the space of the centuries, obligatory trends in fashion influenced greatly the outlook of representatives of different social groups. Changes in adults’ outfit were also reflected in types of clothes worn by children, especially in case of noble families and social elites. Thanks to numerous archaeological material referring to children burials, we are able to trace the changes in children fashion as well. In many instances, special grave robe was replaced by casual clothes.
Detailed analyses of clothes fragments enable to identify various children clothes’ forms worn by descendants of the elite up to 2nd half of 18th c. Many family portraits present repeatable fashion of depicting fathers and sons dressed in identical man attire or mothers and daughters, which dresses were smaller variations of models worn by mothers. Similar references can be observed in child burials, where the offspring was put to grave in everyday clothes, sewn in accordance to fashion of their parents’ clothes. Children needs were neglected, their garments had to reflect their parents’ wealth only. That tendency had frequently negative effects on proper development of the youngest members of the society. That trend is observed till the end of 18th c, when changes in pedagogy rules were slowly introduced, thanks to which child clothes were adjusted to proper child age, body building and development, providing free body movement, necessary for proper development of young organisms. First clothes of that type appeared in England and France and the trend spread next to other European countries, putting an end to many centuries tradition of dressing children in copies of their parents’ clothes.

Late Bronze and early Iron Age costumes in the Southern Baltic: unknown and unexplored Author – Dr. Ślusarska, Katarzyna, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Presenting author)
Keywords: female/male costume, LBA/early Iron Age, Southern Baltic zone

Except for some specific times and regions or very specific context of organic material preservation archaeologists do not have much chances to study costumes of past societies. Most of our knowledge come from proxy data like jewellery types and its distribution within inhumation graves, rare representations of human figure or fortunately survived pieces of clothing. But still we cannot tell whether we are dealing with every-day or ceremonial costume, human or divine being.
However costume is not just a means of protection against environmental conditions. Most of all, it is a powerful tool of communication, regulating or forming social practice. And therefore our limited knowledge about the costumes used in specific times limits also our knowledge about social sphere. Funeral tradition of the late Bronze and early Iron Age Central European groups make the situation even more complicated. Not only cremation left very little evidence for studies on costumes, but barely complete absence of human figure representation in the Bronze Age makes almost impossible to speculate about the clothes that were worn at that times at any occasion. The situation changes a bit during early Iron Age with the emergence of face urn tradition and human figure representation when at least in funeral sphere we can observe the emergence of welldefined set for men and women.
The main aim of this paper is to analyse the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age data from nowadays Poland for potential proxy data for identification of the elements of costume and further studies within the scope of male/female suits as well as everyday and ceremonial costumes.

Women’s headwear from the burials of the III-IV centuries in Suzdal Opolie Author – Dr. Zaytseva, Irina, Institute of Archaeology of RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: burial rite, headwear, Migration period

In 2007-2010 the Institute of archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences has conducted the archaeological investigation of the Migration period necropolis Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2 in Suzdal Opolie. In the small сemetery 18 burial pits with 23 burials were excavated. They performed the rite of ingumation. Funeral rites, grave goods and the parts of the clothing allow us to attribute the monument to be a part of Riazan-Oka culture. The burials can be dated to the end of III-IV сс.
According to the anthropological remains and the presence of decorations is determined that 9 adult individuals are women. Remnants of headwear found in 5 of them and in one burial of girl 8-10 years. 2 women were buried wearing head corollas of different types: in one burial, it was a ribbon, fastened with an iron buckle. It was decorated with glass beads, small bronze rings and fragments of jungling pendants. In another burial the corolla consisted of a ribbon with attached plates with rings, decorated with pearl ornaments. According to the observations of I.Belotserkovskaya, similar clips with rings appeared at the end of the I-II cc. In IV-VII cc. they have proliferated and are becoming an indispensable part of the corollas and occasionally necklaces from the population of Riazan-Oka culture. T. Kravchenko believed that the head corollas put on the top of the textile shawls, which were a mandatory part of women’s headdress. 3 persons had the head decoration of a different type: these were clusters of oval bronze clamps that were closely strung on cords with small wire rings and semicircular plaques. Probably cords with clips and small ornaments were sewn onto organic bases (leather, textile?). In all these burials near the skulls found a pair of large cylindrical temporal rings with blade. The presence of complicated, often multi-layered women’s headwear is one of the characteristics of funeral rites in cultures of Finno-Ugrian type, continuing over a long period of time from the Migration period to the late middle ages.
Т. Kravchenko, N. Trubnikova and I.Belotserkovskaya made a reconstruction of the typical headwear of female burials of the early phase of Riazan-Oka culture. Mostly it’s a cap of leather or textile with a rigid skeleton, represented by the bronze plaque or bast. Caps were decorated with sew-on badges and straps with bronze spirals. Bronze cylindrical temporal rings with blade were attached to hats. At the back were often fastened with a brooch with jungling pendants.
The hats from Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2 are something different in design. The complexes have no fibulae, which could be used for attachment of the temporal rings, no round plates to a rigid foundation. Belotserkovskaya indicates to a rare variety of soft caps without metal plates but with small plaques sewn on. Probably found all the hats belong to this type. We have no evidence of the textile shawls. New data confirms the thesis by I.Belotserkovskaya about the syncretic nature of the early Riazan-Oka women’s headdress, which combines features of various groups.

Two costume assemblages from the Dnieper region: on the reconstruction of identities Author – Dr. Rodinkova, Vlasta, Institute of Archaeology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)

In Soviet and Russian science “identity” in relation to archaeological materials is traditionally considered mainly in ethnic context. Only some recent studies deal with other aspects of the problem – social, professional, religious, gender, age identity, etc. Most of them are based on the analysis of jewellery and clothes accessories.
Bright phenomena in the history of material culture of Eastern Europe are two costume assemblages, known in the Dnieper region in the Roman and Late Migration periods. A set of jewellery from the so-called range of East European enameled ornaments is mostly dated to the second half of the II – III c. AD. In the Dnieper region such items are connected with Late Zarubintsy and Kiev cultures which are considered as Proto-Slavonic by the majority of modern scholars. The areal of enameled ornaments as a whole includes also the Baltic, Volga, Kama regions, the Crimea and North Caucasus. Wide spread of these objects in Barbaricum can probably mark some general processes occurred in a considerable part of Eastern Europe, in which Proto-Slavonic tribes were involved along with other groups of population. The nature of these processes, however, is unclear. Usually enameled items are represented as stray finds or come from hoards, which show a set of things, but not their correlation and positions in a costume. This complicates the attribution of concrete ornaments and determination of identities (social, professional, age, sex, etc.) which they may reflect.
At the end of the VI – VII c. AD another jewellery assemblage has been extended in the Dnieper region, which is known as “decorations from the circle of the Martynovka hoard”. It belonged to bearers of Kolochin and Pen’kovka cultures that are considered to be a part of the eastern Slavs. Martynovka-type ornaments come also from several nomadic burials. Today there are two main hypotheses explaining the fact that the same attire was used by different ethnic groups of population. According to the first, this assemblage marked the formation in the Dnieper region of a new social identity and manifested the belonging of its owners to a certain socio-political structure. According to the second, it reflected the emergence of professional community of jewellers, whose production determined the local fashion. Combining both hypotheses, we can assume that joint activities of several jewellery workshops was carried out under the protection of the power structure, which “made an order” for the creation of a new costume as a visual display of its existence. The assemblage includes male and female costume accessories. Their further study allows to identify social, age, marriage and other status of their owners.
Despite the considerable time gap, the set of enameled ornaments and the Martynivka-type female attire show significant similarities in the structure and in the forms of a number of artifacts. Perhaps it reflects a continuation of local costume traditions (probably in a cut of clothing, embroidery, applique and other forms, which are not fixed on the archaeological materials of the Dnieper region) for more than 500 years.

Possible reconstruction of female dress in Grobin- Baltic influence and Scandinavian fashion Author – Mg. hist. Santa, Jansone, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia (Presenting author)
Keywords: archaeology, dress, Scandinavia

The dress has an important place in any research about people from particular time period and location, as it holds a lot of information about its wearer. In historic and ethnographic literature dress has long been recognized as an indicator of group affinity. The aim of this paper is with the use of available knowledge from burials, literature, and images to draw the possible look of the well off Grobin woman in the 7th – 8th century. Unfortunately, during this period, mainly cremation burials are used for women, thus adding to the difficulty of reconstructing such dress. Some later evidences from Sweden and Denmark are used, although with limitations. In the process also local evidence to Scandinavian fashion has been detected and further analysed, thus trying to determine how far one has influenced the other. It must be noted that this is only hypothetic version lacking definitive proof in form of actual archaeological finds, although backed by strong supporting evidence.

Posted in: Uncategorized